Bikram Subedi

 

Academic Training
Postdoc at Wadsworth Center, NY State Department of Health, Albany, NY
Ph.D. at Baylor University, Waco, TX
M.S and B.S. at Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

Brief Bio
​​Prior to joining Murray State University, Dr. Subedi worked as a Senior Research Scientist at Lancaster Eurofins Laboratory at Eli Lilly and as a Visiting Assistant Professor at Wabash College. Dr. Subedi is interested in improving students' learning curiosity by incorporating the real-world applications of newly developed analytical methods in undergraduate and graduate teaching. Overall, Dr. Subedi is refining his teaching capabilities and expanding research expertise at Murray State University. 

Research Interests
Development and validation of analytical methods for trace level chemical contaminants
Understanding the environmental sources, pathways, distribution, fate, and effects of chemical contaminants
Sewage Epidemiology - Estimation of consumption rate of drugs in the community
Understanding the impact of residual drugs in the environment

Service Activities

  • Served in several University, College, and Departmental committees/activities including MSU Road Scholar program, University Appeals Board and Grade Appeal Committee, Faculty/Chair Hiring Committee, Safety Committee, and Maintenance of Analytical Instruments at The Jones/Ross Research Center at the Department of Chemistry.
  • Served at the national and local sections of American Chemical Society: Chair-elect, Kentucky Lake Section, Executive member, Environmental Science Division, Editor of ENVR ACS newsletter, Chair of Certificate of Merit Award, ENVR Division, and organized the first ever symposia on “Wastewater-based Epidemiology” at the national meeting of American Chemical Society at Boston, MA and San Diego, CA.
  • Served as a judge for student’s presentation competitions/awards at American Chemical Society’s National meetings, Kentucky Academy of Science annual meetings, Sigma XII Poster Competition at MSU, Residential College Academic Tournament at MSU, and Southeastern Undergraduate Research Conference.
  • Peer Reviewer of Environmental Science and Technology, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ACS Books, Environment International, Water Research, Science of the Total Environment, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Talanta, Chemosphere, Environmental Pollution, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, and Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.
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Research Publications

Peer-Reviewed Publications (Student co-authors are underlined)

Google Scholar Profile: https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=F9ciTpEAAAAJ&hl=en&oi=ao

Original Research Articles

  1. O’Rourke, C., Subedi, B. Occurrence and mass loading of synthetic opioids, synthetic cathinones, and synthetic cannabinoids in wastewater treatment plants in four U.S. communities. Environmental Science and Technology 2020 (In Press).
  2. Croft, T.L., Huffines, R.A., Pathak, M., and Subedi, B. Prevalence of illicit and prescribed neuropsychiatric drugs in three communities in Kentucky using wastewater-based epidemiology and Monte Carlo simulation for the estimation of associated uncertainties. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2020, 384, 121360.
  3. Dhungana, B.; Peng, H.; Kutarna, S.; Umbuzeiro, G.; Shrestha, S.; Liu, J.; Jones, P.D.; Subedi, ; Giesy, J.P.; Cobb, G.P. Abundances and concentration of brominated azo dyes detected in indoor dust. Environmental Pollution 2019, 252, 784-793.
  4. Foppe, K.S., Weinberger, D., and Subedi, B. Estimation of the consumption of illicit drugs during special events in two communities in Western Kentucky, USA. Scienceof The Total Environment 2018, 633, 249-256.
    This publication was highlighted by several media including:

    • Press Release - American Chemical Society. Illicit drug use could be higher than previously thought; soars during special events.
    • The Solar Eclipse of 2017 Had a Significant Effect on America's Drug Use.
    • Discover Magazine. People Were Definitely High For the 2017 Solar Eclipse, Study Finds.
    • The Outline. America can lie about its drug problem, but its sewage can’t.
    • Technology Network. Sewage Analysis Reveals Scale of America's Drug Problems. 
    • Quartz. Drug testing sewers show that Americans get lit during holidays and special events. 
    • Inverse. The Solar Eclipse of 2017 had a Significant Effect on America's Drug Use. America's Sewage is Revealing Its Drug Habit.
    • IFL Science. Americans Are Using Way More Party Drugs Than We Thought, According To Their Poop. 
    • Medical Research. Illicit Drug Use Spikes During Special Events.
    • Gizmodo. Sewage Study Finds American Drug Use May Be Worse Than We Thought.
    • Science Daily. Illicit drug use could be higher than previously thought; soars during special events
    • WKMS, an NPR Station.Murray State Researchers Find Illicit Drugs in West Kentucky Water Sources.
    • WPSD Local 6 and Hooked On Science.Eclipse High.
    • Inside Science.Sewage Suggests That People Got High For 2017 Eclipse.
    • LEX 18.Scientific Study Says A Lot Of People Were High During KY Eclipse.
    • Murray Ledger & Times.MSU study tests wastewater for drug use.
    • Blue & Gold, Murray State University.The consumption of illicit drugs in two western Kentucky communities.
  1. Skees, A.J., Foppe, K.S., Loganathan, B., and Subedi, B. Contamination profiles, mass loadings, and sewage epidemiology of neuropsychiatric and illicit drugs in wastewater and river waters from a community in the Midwestern United States. Scienceof The Total Environment 2018, 631-632, 1457-1464.
  2. Subedi, B., Sullivan, K.D., and Dhungana, B. Phthalate and non-phthalate plasticizers in indoor dust from childcare facilities, salons, and homes across the USA. Environmental Pollution 2017, 230, 701-708.
  3. Meszaros, N., Subedi, B., Stamets, T., and Naima, S. Assessment of Surface Water Contamination from Coalbed Methane Fracturing-Derived Volatile Contaminants in Sullivan County, Indiana, USA. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology2017, 99 (3), 385-390.
  4. Subedi, B., Balakrishna, K., Joshua, D. I., and Kannan, K. Mass loading and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products including psychoactives, antihypertensives, and antibiotics in two sewage treatment plants in southern India. Chemosphere 2017 167, 429-437.
  5. Subedi, B., Balakrishna, K., Sinha, R. K., Yamashita, N., Balasubramanian, V.G., and Kannan, K. Mass loading and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, including psychoactive and illicit drugs and artificial sweeteners, in five sewage treatment plants in India. Journal of Environmental Engineering 2015 4 (3), 2882-2891.
  6. Subedi, B., Codru, N., Dziewulski, D. M., Wilson, L. R., Xue, J., Yun, S., Braun-Howland, E., Minihane, C. and Kannan, K. A pilot study on the assessment of trace organic contaminants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products from on-site wastewater treatment systems along Skaneateles Lake in New York State, USA. Water Research 2015, 72, 28-39.
  7. Subedi, B. and Kannan, K. Occurrence and fate of select psychoactive pharmaceuticals and antihypertensives in two wastewater treatment plants in New York State, USA. Science of the Total Environment 2015, 514, 273-280.
  8. Subedi, B. and Kannan, K. Fate of artificial sweeteners in wastewater treatment plants in New York State. Environmental Science and Technology 2014, 48 (23), 13668-13674.
    This publication was covered by media including:

    • Science News for StudenArtificial sweeteners pollute streams
  9. Subedi, B. and Kannan, K. Mass loading and removal of select illicit drugs in two wastewater treatment plants in New York State and estimation of illicit drug usage in communities through wastewater analysis. Environmental Science and Technology 2014, 48 (12), 6661-6670.

    This publication achieved significant media-coverage including:

    • ACS News.Gauging local illicit drug use in real time could help police fight abuse.
    • Are sewers flooded with illegal drugs?
    • LC/GC Chromatography Online. Analysis of wastewater in New York State indicates illicit drug consumption.
    • New Method May Aid the War on Drugs.
    • Popular Science.Real-time wastewater analysis shows what drugs are being used where
  10. Subedi, B., Lee, S., Moon, H. B., and Kannan, K. Emission of artificial sweeteners, select pharmaceuticals, and personal care products through sewage sludge. Environment International 2014, 68, 33-40.
  11. Subedi, B., Yun, S. H., Jayaraman, S., Bergen, B. J., and Kannan, K. Retrospective monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and sediments from New Bedford Harbor, MA, USA. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2014, 186 (8), 5273-5284.
  12. Subedi, B., Aguilar, L., Williams, E. S., Brooks, B. W., and Usenko, S. Selective pressurized liquid extraction technique capable of analyzing dioxins, furans, and PCBs in clams and crab tissue. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2014, 92 (4), 460-465.
  13. Subedi, B., Lee, S., Moon, H. B., and Kannan, K. Psychoactive pharmaceuticals in sludge and their emission from wastewater treatment facilities in Korea. Environmental Science and Technology, 2013, 47 (23), 13321-13329.
  14. Robinson, E., Trumble, S., Subedi, B., Sanders, R., and Usenko, S. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a whale earplug (earwax): A novel method for analyzing organic contaminants in lipid-rich matrices. Journal of Chromatography A. 2013, 1319, 14-20.
  15. Subedi, B., Du, B., Chambliss, C. K., Koschorreck, J., Rüdel, H., Quack, M., Brooks, B. W., and Usenko, S. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in German fish tissue: a national study. Environmental Science and Technology, 2012, 46(16), 9047–9054.
  16. Subedi, B. and Usenko, S. Enhanced pressurized liquid extraction technique capable of analyzing polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans, and polychlorobiphenyls in fish tissue. Journal of Chromatography A, 2012, 1238, 30-37.
  17. Subedi, B., Mottaleb, M. A., Chambliss, C. K., and Usenko, S. Simultaneous analysis of select pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish tissue using pressurized liquid extraction combined with silica gel cleanup. Journal of Chromatography A, 2011, 1218, 6278–6284.

Review Articles

  1. Balakrishna, K, Rath, A., Praveenkumarreddy, Y., Guruge, K.S., and Subedi, B. A review of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Indian water bodies. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2017 137, 113-120.
  2. Subedi, B., Aguilar, L., Robinson, E., Hageman, K.J., Björklund, E., Sheesley, R.J., and Usenko, S. Selective pressurized liquid extraction as a sample-preparation technique for persistent organic pollutants and contaminants of emerging concern. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 2015 68, 119-132.
  3. Ma, W. L., Subedi, B., and Kannan, K. The occurrence of bisphenol A, phthalates, parabens and other environmental phenolic compounds in house dust: A review. Current Organic Chemistry, 2014, 18 (17), 2182-2199.

Book and Book Chapters

  1. Subedi, B.; Burgard, D.A.; Loganathan, B.G. (Eds). Wastewater-based Epidemiology: Estimation of Community Consumption of Drugs and Diets. ACS Symposium Series 1319; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC,
  2. Subedi, B. Uncertainties associated with wastewater-based epidemiology for the estimation of community consumption of drugs. In Wastewater-based Epidemiology: Estimation of Community Consumption of Drugs and Diets. Subedi, B.; Burgard, D.A.; Loganathan, B.G. (Eds). ACS Symposium Series 1319; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC,
  3. Subedi, B.; Burgard, D.A. Wastewater-based epidemiology as a complementary approach to the conventional survey-based approach for the estimation of community consumption of drugs. In Wastewater-based Epidemiology: Estimation of Community Consumption of Drugs and Diets. Subedi, B.; Burgard, D.A.; Loganathan, B.G. (Eds). ACS Symposium Series 1319; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC,
  4. Bisceglia, K.J.; Kroening, G.; Subedi, B. GC-MS methods for monitoring illicit drug biomarkers in wastewater: a critical review. In Wastewater-based Epidemiology: Estimation of Community Consumption of Drugs and Diets. Subedi, B.; Burgard, D.A.; Loganathan, B.G. (Eds). ACS Symposium Series 1319; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC,
  5. Subedi, B., Loganathan, B. Environmental Emission of Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater Treatment Plants in the U.S.A. InPersistent Organic Chemicals in the Environment: Status and Trends in the Pacific Basin Countries II Temporal Trends; ACS Symposium Series 1244; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2016; pp 181-202.
  6. Foppe K.S.,Subedi B. (2018) Analysis of Illicit Drugs in Wastewater Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). In: Musah R. (eds) Analysis of Drugs of Abuse. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1810. Humana Press, New York, NY.
  7. Subedi B. (2018) Estimation of Community Usage of Drugs Utilizing Sewage Epidemiology. In: Musah R. (eds) Analysis of Drugs of Abuse. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1810. Humana Press, New York, NY.
  8. Shaw, S. D., Harris, J. H., Berger, M. L., Subedi, B., and Kannan, K. Brominated flame-retardants and Their Replacements in Food Packaging and Household Products: Uses, Human Exposure, and Health Effects. In Toxicants in Food Packaging and Household Plastics. Molecular and Integrative Toxicology, 2014, 61-93.
  9. Usenko, S., Subedi, B., Aguilar, L., and Robinson, E. High-throughput analysis of PPCPs, PCDD/Fs, and PCBs in biological matrices using GC–MS/MS. In Advanced Techniques in Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS-MS and GC-TOF-MS) for Environmental Chemistry. Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry, 2013, 61, 143-158.

Awards and Honors

Professional Awards/honors

  1. Emerging Scholar Award – 2019, Murray State University Alumni Association
  2. KarlHussung Professor of Chemistry 2019-2020, Murray State University
  3. Outstanding Professional Member Research Award – 2019, American Chemical Society (ACS)- Kentucky Lake Section
  4. Editor of envirofACS Newsletter of Environmental Chemistry Division of ACS (Since 2017)
  5. Chair of Publications/Publicity Committee, Chair of Certificate of Merit Award, Division of Environmental Chemistry, American Chemical Society (Since 2017)
  6. Awards Committee, Kentucky Lake Section - American Chemical Society (ACS)
  7. Graduate Student Award in Environmental Chemistry, American Chemical Society (2012)
  8. Best Ph.D. Student Platform Presentation Award, Second Place, SETAC North America 32nd Annual Meeting, Boston (2011)
  9. Best Student Platform Presentation Award, Second Place, South Central Regional SETAC Meeting, Denton, TX (2011)
  10. Outstanding for Material Content and Manner of Presentation, American Chemical Society 245th National Meeting, Co-authorship of the Presentation (2013)
  11. Graduate Minority Student Award, SETAC North America 32nd Annual Meeting (2011)
  12. Graduate Student Travel Award, SETAC North America 31st Annual Meeting (2010)
  13. Franklin/McAtee Fund Award for graduate students, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX (2009-2012)
  14. Graduate Student Travel Awards from Baylor University (2009-2012)